The persian writing system
Ancient persian writing
Early in the history of the dynasty, a syllabic script to write the Old Persian language was developed. This form differs already somewhat from that in which they were written down perhaps sometime in the early 7th cent. As the script developed, the letters that were identical with Pahlavi letters then changed as the Pahlavi letters changed, while the remaining letters stayed closer to their original form. Several sounds that, judging from the history of the language and the way words are spelled in the Elamite, Akkadian, and Greek traditions, were presumably pronounced are not written, such as h before u e. This variation of the cuneiform is the one used by Darius and his successors during the Achaemenian period for registering chronicles, official documents, and other sorts of written materials. Jivanji Jamshedji Modi, Bombay, , pp. The problem is only partially and not always successfully obviated by the use of diacritical marks or special orthographic conventions. The word separators are in purple. The Old Persian writing system was completely different from the Modern Persian used today. It is of the Imperial Aramaic type see Livshits, The book Pahlavi script is a cursive script, in which the letters are joined or not in complex ligatures according to strict rules.
This script was not a direct descendent of the Sumerian and Akkadian systems, because even though the physical appearance of Old Persian signs are Cuneiformor in the shape of wedges, the actual shape of the signs do not correspond to signs in older systems with similar phonetic values.
The Nestorian Syriac script.
IRAN vi. For bibliographies, see the individual languages. This is a correct transliteration of the native name of the language, however many, including the ISO and the Academy of Persian Language and Literatureprefer the name Persian for the language.
The Avestan script. In the exordium of his famous trilingual inscription at Behistan, near Kermanshah, in western Iran, Darius makes the following declaration, in Old Persian, Elamite, and Akkadian. Pash-to, written in the Persian variant of the Arabo-Persian script, and Baluchi, written in the Pakistani variant, both employ additional diacritics for the retroflex consonants; Pashto also uses diacritics to distinguish phonemes not found in Persian. Avestan is written in an alphabetic script created on the basis of the Middle Persian Pahlavi script see below in order to record the sacred texts precisely the way they were pronounced at the time see AVESTAN SCRIPT , presumably by select priests whose pronunciation was considered to be especially reliable. During the Achaemenid period B. Bright, eds. The Middle Persian script. The Manichean script used for Sogdian, Bactrian, Parthian, and Middle Persian is mostly phonetic, but has a few particularities. In practice, this amounts to either following the practice used to transliterate Semitic languages, as opposed to a simplified system probably closer to the intent of the Iranian scribes, who no longer knew Aramaic well or at all. This script was not a direct descendent of the Sumerian and Akkadian systems, because even though the physical appearance of Old Persian signs are Cuneiform , or in the shape of wedges, the actual shape of the signs do not correspond to signs in older systems with similar phonetic values. In Tajikistan Tajik has been written with a version of Cyrillic alphabet since Furdoonjee D. Over time, each script developed differently into its later standard form.
Letters may also have been added or omitted over time, or their value may have changed. Persian, Farsi or Parsi? Related Links.
Old Persian is written in a cuneiform q. As was mentioned in Earliest Historybefore the settlement of the Persians in Persia proper, almost all the nations immediately to the west of this land such as the Elamites, Sumerians, Aramians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Akkadians, etc.
Several sounds that, judging from the history of the language and the way words are spelled in the Elamite, Akkadian, and Greek traditions, were presumably pronounced are not written, such as h before u e.
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