Measurement and construction sites
ISO standards are supposed to help companies identify mistakes, streamline their operations and be able to guarantee a consistent level of quality Kartha, The results also contained valuable information which could be used to control site operations in a better way than that of today.
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The measurement of safety is mainly focused on the construction period as most accidents occur during this stage. Doing this only in terms of profits, which is the most common way, is not sufficient. For the roads and bridges studied the positive variables were in-house design, a high proportion of staff, and many different persons being involved in planning before the start of construction work. Quality performance In the construction industry, quality is defined as the totality of features required by a product or services to satisfy a given need, or fitness for purpose Parfitt and Sanvido, The ISO series concentrate on the five key areas of quality-management systems, that is, management responsibility, resource management, product or service realization, measurement, analysis and improvement Zuckerman, ; Cianfrani et al Quantitative survey is often regarded as sterile and unimaginative but well suited to research projects that require factual and descriptive information De Vaus, The results also contained valuable information which could be used to control site operations in a better way than that of today. Construction workers worldwide have three times more chances of dying and two times of getting injured than any worker of other economic activity Sousa and Teixeira, The measurements performed in the manufacturing industries studied had several purposes. These measurements, however, in some cases required more time. Research findings by BSRIA have suggested that it is five times more expensive to develop a new construction client than to maintain an existing one and companies could increase their profits by almost per cent by retaining just 5 per cent more of their clients. Rose further stated that measurement can guide steady advancement toward established goals and identify shortfalls or stagnation. The nature of this research project was quantitative rather than qualitative. In order to improve performance, many construction companies implement the ISO series, an integrated system to ensure consistency and better performance of construction projects. The type of product also determines what measures should be used.
Table 1 displays the role of the respondents participated in the questionnaire survey. A general conclusion was that making performance measurements is never an easy task.
Importance of measurement in construction
Traditionally, the safety performance is measured through injury statistic. However, Kumaraswamy and Thorpe considered variety criteria in measuring a project. The construction time of a building is usually specified before the commencement of construction. A questionnaire that covered the respondent's profile, project characteristics and project performance variables was developed. By finding the characteristics of the good and the bad projects company management can improve competitiveness and long term profitability of the company. All these measurements showed that almost all the measures used could be obtained with limited effort with regard to both time and money. Case studies were therefore performed at a number of production units throughout Sweden to find out how such measurements were made and how the results were used.
The first was as a strategy tool for company management. The literature review focuses on the areas of ISO standard and the project performance measurement.
Many studies reveal that effective implementation of ISO can benefit organizations through the improvement of management control Lee,efficiency Ebrahimpour et al,productivity Terziovski et al, ; Terziovski and Power, and customer services Yeung et al, For simple products with short manufacturing times and low complexity physical outputs should be used.
Construction workers worldwide have three times more chances of dying and two times of getting injured than any worker of other economic activity Sousa and Teixeira, This would, however, require that there would be a different flow of information than that of today.
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The result was that variables such as additional work ordered by the client, formal education and employment time of the site manager and participation of workers in planning did not seem to have any significant effect for any of the types of products studied. Due to changes in both quality and size the results were sometimes difficult to interpret when physical quantities were used. Usually the client's requirements are to get construction needs translated into a design that specifies characteristics, performance criteria and conformance to specifications, besides to get the facilities built within cost and time Ahmed and Kangari, For the roads and bridges studied the positive variables were in-house design, a high proportion of staff, and many different persons being involved in planning before the start of construction work. In the construction industry, client's satisfaction has remained an elusive and challenging issue for some considerable time. The different projects were followed for periods of between three months to one year with the help of personnel at the sites. At the construction companies the results were mainly used by the site managers to estimate the final costs. The measurements performed in the manufacturing industries studied had several purposes.
The units studied in manufacturing used many more different measures than did the construction sites studied.
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