Arguments over what public education should look like and what purpose public education should serve — God, country, community, the economy, the self — are not new.
For much of the nineteenth century, production was done in small mills, which were typically powered by water and built to serve local needs. This made child labor the labor of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the industrial revolution.
This extravagance is both a product of advances in materials and a challenge in its future growth. Raeff, Marc. Benjamin Elman argues that China was in a high level equilibrium trap in which the non-industrial methods were efficient enough to prevent use of industrial methods with high costs of capital.
Not only are there the attacks of the counter-culture represented by the writings of Theodore Roszak, Paul Goodman, and Herbert Marcusebut more thoughtful observers, such as Lewis Mumford, have attacked the spirit and practice of science and technology in the modern world.
Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed Cottonopolis, and arguably the world's first industrial city.
The initial aim of this outburst of maritime activity was not so much the acquisition of extensive fresh territory as the attainment of a far-flung network of trading posts and maritime bases. On entering the school, you can discover no individual unemployed, no boy looking vacantly round him: the whole is a beautiful picture of the most animated industry, and resembles the various machinery of a cloth or thread manufactory, completely executing their different offices, and all set in motion by one active engine.
One of the elements which is newest about it is the notion of purposive creation. Distance, in this sense, greatly explains the revolutionary incongruities that existed throughout Europe during the nineteenth-century.